“Agility ladders” don’t make you more agile… and they don’t make you faster, either.


Agility Basics

Agility Rule #1: In sports requiring maneuverability your center of mass cannot remain stationary.

We’ve all seen them on Facebook, Instagram or any number of blogs across the interwebs… video clips of athletes doing all sorts of fancy footwork running through a stationary ladder lying on the ground with a caption that reads something like “Getting my agility training in today.”

No, my friend. No you aren’t.

Agility is the ability to explosively move to change direction and position of the body quickly and effectively while under control in reaction to external environmental stimuli on the field of play(1). (Notice that some of the words in that previous sentence are bold, in italics AND underlined? That means they’re really important.) Agility therefore requires that the center of mass (the body) be displaced and that the displacement occurs due to an athlete reacting to some external factor such as an opponent or the change in the travel path of a ball/puck/shuttlecock(2), etc.

One of my favorite visual representations of this definition comes from the world of rugby. Quade Cooper(3), who plays for the Australian national side, has one one the best lateral steps in all of sports(4). Check him out as he makes Cory Jane of the All Blacks look just a bit silly:

Notice what he did? He took a big step, planted hard, and reversed direction. There were no mincy, choppy quick-steps, and it was his body that changed direction, not his feet. That movement pattern is the same no matter what the sport(5):

And guess what? It’s the same movement pattern on skates as well(6):

None of those movement patterns look anything like this, and for good reason:

If the people in the first three videos did what the guy in the last one is doing they would get crushed by a tackler, blown past by a ball that sailed out of reach or blocked back into the pack and brought to a dead halt. He would get beaten because his center of mass never moves. And while this guy isn’t exactly the most talented or graceful ladder runner, the movement pattern is the same no matter who is in the ladder. All motion is happening below the center of mass and that means this movement doesn’t meet the definition of agility. In short, ladder drills are simply not effective at training ANY of the skills necessary to be agile(7).

If you want to become more agile, ditch the ladder and let’s talk a bit about things you can work on to help with your agility. The first is strength, and that brings us to:

Agility Rule #2: In order to explosively displace your center of mass, you must be strong enough to overcome both gravity and inertia.

“Strong enough” is a relative phrase. Just because someone can deadlift 500 pounds doesn’t mean that they will be able to stop on a dime to avoid a sweep blocker or make a sharp lateral cut to catch a jammer as she tries to slide past on the inside line. The strength that I’m referring to here is more elastic in nature. It deals primarily with your legs and your core. Your leg muscles must have the strength to decelerate your body mass efficiently, the strength to make the moment between deceleration and re-acceleration as short as possible, and the strength to efficiently propel you in the other direction. Your core strength is even more important in determining the rate of direction change, particularly with respect to your trunk stabilizers which have maintain static tension as you go through the motion.

Great. So what the hell does all of that mean?

Since, in my opinion, core stability is the most important feature of strength as it applies to agility we’ll start there. I’m going to assume that everyone reading this knows how to do a plank. Good. Unfortunately they just aren’t very useful when it comes to athletics. Unlike the static motion of a plank, when playing sports at least a portion of your body is moving at all times. You also (hopefully) don’t spend much time in a prone position staring at the floor. Instead, what we’re looking for are exercises that help your core musculature do what it needs to while you skate: stay stable to transfer force between your shoulders and your hips as they move, and produce force by contributing to hip flexion and rotation.

The list of exercises that can help improve these functions is vast, but here are a few examples of ones that I use with my clients(8):

Wide Stance Anti-Rotational Chop:

Banded half-kneeling Pallof press:

Landmine rainbows (works both lateral anti-flexion and anti-rotation):

Rotational medicine ball toss variations:

Those should give you some stuff to start working with. Although I mentioned leg strength above, we’re going to deal with that in a future post because it’s quite a bit more involved and deals with multiple joint angle training, working with various types of muscle contraction, ground reaction time and mobility.

Now, let’s say you’ve been training for quite some time and have all the strength of Hercules, with legs as powerful as pistons and your core as stable as a tree trunk… you are ready to unleash your fury against your opponent, right? Nope. There’s still more to it.

Agility Rule #3: Physics and biomechanics matter.

All the strength and power in the world won’t matter if you can’t apply the force you’re generating into the ground at the proper angle. That’s because no matter how awesome you are, you can’t defy physics. To move in a particular direction you must apply force in the opposite direction of the way you plan to go and the more force you apply to the ground, the more the ground will push back at you.

Maximum force application to change directions therefore requires an athlete to utilize certain angles, and the ones we’re primarily concerned with in roller derby are shin angles. There are two types of shin angles, positive and negative. This is what they look like(9):


What we’re looking at is the angle between the shin and the foot. If it’s acute then it’s a positive shin angle, if it’s 90 degrees or obtuse then it’s negative. When you are doing linear acceleration and deceleration (in a straight line) off skates your shin angles should be positive on the acceleration and negative on the deceleration to allow you to put as much force into the ground as possible. However, when on skates the mechanics of linear deceleration are obviously different because you can’t utilize negative shin angles unless you spin backwards and dig in with your toe stops. This is why using lateral deceleration dreamstime_l_67127902(variations of hockey stops and power slides) is usually the best option for derby players to stop quickly from high speeds(10). When you’re doing lateral acceleration and deceleration your shin angles should be positive during both actions because it allows you to generate maximum force to overcome both momentum and gravity.  This is why a jammer dancing on her toe stops to try to move laterally around a wall of blockers once they have her hemmed in rarely succeeds. By going up on her toe stops she creates a negative shin angle which automatically tells her brain that she is in deceleration mode, limits the activation of calf and quad muscles and prevents her from putting enough force into the ground to move sideways efficiently(11).

Here’s a fun example of what good shin angles can bring to the table in lateral movements:

While his body position relative to the ground is what most
people immediately notice, what I’m actually looking at are his shin angles on the shin angleinside foot. It’s tough to see in the video because he’s moving so quickly, so I tried to capture a still shot so it’s more easily visible. Look at his left leg (on the right to us) and the angle between his shin and top of his foot. Pretty damn tight, even with his heel up. (He’s also getting some really good drive because he’s coming in so low to the ground, however, that’s not very useful from a sport perspective because there are virtually no moments during a game that an athlete would find themselves in this position.)

Like the strength training exercises discussed above, there are tons of different drills you can do to help improve your ability to keep a positive shin angle. Most of them are designed to increase linear acceleration rather than lateral, but the shin angle mechanics are the same.

Push-Up Starts(12)

Mountain climbers into sprints(13):

Once you have the idea of positive shin angle down, you can include it in your lateral drills, which I’ll show you some examples of in the next section.

So now you’ve got the Herculean strength to unleash on the track, along with Sir Isaac Newton’s grasp of physics… that means you’re ready to go embarrass your opponents, right? Still not quite yet. Remember that there were some words in bold in the definition of agility? The stuff above covers the body part of the definition, but we still have to deal with this bit: in reaction to external environmental stimuli.

Agility Rule #4: No matter how much body control you have you’ll still get hit in the face if your brain doesn’t react fast enough to the fact that someone threw a punch at you.

This is the part where most “agility” exercises fall apart. Most of the exercises touted as “agility work” would better be called change-of-direction training. This is because whether we’re talking about stationary cone drills, lateral hurdles, plyometrics, etc. they all leave out this one key component. They’re static in nature, so you don’t have to react to anything because you already know what’s coming. In other words, if you aren’t being forced to react to some external change in stimulus then you are not becoming more agile. Think of strength and physics as building blocks. You need them, but they’re not the whole structure. What ultimately matters is your ability to use those attributes to react to external stimulus and reorganize your body accordingly.

That requires a whole different type of training and this is where most of the really fun stuff comes in. We’ll call them Reactive drills. There is virtually no limit to the number of these you could come up with, and I’ve frequently done partner-mirror drills, partner reactive sprints, multi-directional shuffle drills, etc. (both on and off the track). Recently, however, I saw some new ones (or new to me at least) on Matt Dickens’ Pure Health, Pure Sport blog that I really like. Matt is currently the head of physical preparation for the Andorran National Men’s Alpine Ski and Snowboard Cross Teams and he has his guys doing some really cool Reactive training.

The key here is that the athletes have to utilize their hard earned strength as well as as physics while simultaneously reacting to unknown/unexpected/changing external stimulus. And that is exactly what we’re looking for. It’s an added bonus that all of the drills in this video can (and should be) done by derby players both on and off skates.

In Conclusion

Ladder drills don’t work for increasing agility. Period.(14) If all of this is coming as a shock to you and you’ve been using ladders for training, please don’t feel like you’ve been duped. Most of the American football programs in this country still use these silly things and the misinformation about their training effect is right up there with the stuff going around about elevation training masks (hint: those masks don’t actually train you for elevation) so you’ve got a lot of good company. Hopefully, however, the information in this article will help you start training more effectively to help you reach your dreams of track dominance.

1. That definition is my own phrasing, but is similar to what was used by Sheppard and Young (2006), who defined agility as a “rapid whole body movement with change of velocity or direction in response to a stimulus.”

2. A shuttlecock is the thing that badminton players, who are truly some incredible athletes at the world championship level, smash back and forth across the net. I’ve never had the opportunity to use the word shuttlecock in a sentence before and I feel that my life is just a little more complete now that I have (three times). I’m betting that you’ll never forget what’s called and that you’ll whip out that linguistic gem the next time you’re at a family barbecue and someone strings up a net. You’re welcome.

3. Just by way of disclosure, I am a HUGE All Blacks fan (the New Zealand national rugby team that Mr. Cooper is seen out-stepping in that clip) and I also support a team in Super Rugby, the Gallagher Chiefs, that he has caused havoc for over the years. The point is, despite the distress this guy has caused me as a sports fan, I have no choice but to acknowledge his magnificent level of agility.

4. Quade Cooper’s side step of Cory Jane is impressive, but is definitely not unique in the rugby world. If you want to watch some really impressive agility just from the last Super Rugby season point your browser here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=woJxp65SyUo .

5. Serena loses that point and ultimately the match (Australian Open 2016 final) to Angelique Kerber. However, her incredible ability to react to the ball and explosively move her entire body from one position to another on the court is one of the things that has made her one of the best athletes of all time.

6. Up until the last few years it’s been really tough to get good clear video of derby games to use as examples of specific movements. Thankfully WFTDA.TV now has excellent production value and a huge video library available on YouTube.  It only took me about ten minutes of reviewing footage from last year’s WFTDA Championships to find that fantastic clip of Rose City’s Scald Eagle doing her thing. The portion of the clip you need to pay attention to is the first part of the replay as she side steps to pass Gotham’s pivot. Note that it’s her torso that shifts as she takes one hard plant step.

7. They also don’t increase your speed, but I’ll save that break down for a later article.

8. The videos in this section came from three of the most well-respected guys in strength and conditioning, Eric Cressey , Nick Tumminello and Bret Contreras .

9. I can’t draw. At all. Not even a stick figure. I learned this when trying to use inkscape to create a diagram for this today. I resorted to theft from http://accoladeathletics.blogspot.com/ . Hopefully they won’t sue me.

10. Because of the mechanical differences created by our equipment, off skates linear deceleration training is of limited use for derby players.

11. A jammer might be able to execute a quick hop sideways off of a toe stop if she already has momentum coming into the pack, but if she’s stopped or doing a slow roll, it’s next to impossible to generate enough power that way to propel you laterally past an opponent. If you don’t believe me, try this: without your skates on get into derby stance and jump straight up as explosively as you can. Now get back into derby position, get up on you tip toes and try the same jump. Unless you’re some sort of alien or a superhero, I’m guessing you only jumped about half as high the second time.

12. Video by: King’s Sport Training.

13. Video by: Joe DeFranco.

14. I’m not saying that they are completely useless, because I do believe for brand new skaters they might increase proprioception (the sense of the relative position of neighboring parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement) and help with motor control as newbies are learning to connect their brain to their feet. My colleague and vaunted rugby strength and conditioning coach Keir Wenham-Flatt would probably disagree with me about that, because his distaste for ladder drills is even more deep seated than mine. One of his NSFW posts about the topic is here: http://rugbystrengthcoach.com/agility-ladders-are-bullshit/

What strength and conditioning is, what it isn’t, and why it matters in roller derby

If you play roller derby, then you have likely felt the need to defend your athletic prowess at least once to someone who thinks that the sport that you play is “fake.” I know you’ve had it happen because I too have had to correct the same misconception for nearly a decade. When the issue arises in a social situation I look at it as an opportunity to market roller derby to a potential new fan, but because I work in and around other sports, my version of the conversation usually happens like this:

Conversation at a recent national strength and conditioning conference:

Other strength and conditioning coach, “Hi I’m Mike. I run a sports performance facility where I coach baseball and football athletes. What do you do?”

Me, “I’m Shelley. I also run a sports performance company and work primarily with roller derby, hockey and golf athletes. I also do some rugby coachi…”

Other strength and conditioning coach, snorting derisively and interrupting, “Wait. Roller derby? I saw that when I was a kid. You mean you actually do strength and conditioning work with them?  That’s… interesting.”

Mike then wanders off to speak with a track coach he recognizes from college.

Yes, Mike is a dick, but it’s still frustrating, to say the least. It also shouldn’t be happening in 2016; at least not in a community of coaching professionals that are intimately familiar with the physical and physiological demands of sports of all kinds.(1)

Since roller derby’s resurgence in the mid-2000’s, its legitimacy as a truly competitive athletic endeavor has increased exponentially. Advances in skills training, coaching, gear dreamstime_l_62126256technology, league organization and even significant sports-media coverage have all exploded in ways that very few other sports can claim. However, there is still one component necessary to all serious sports that remains sadly lacking in our world, and it’s crucial to the evolution of this sport… strength and conditioning.

At first glance, this gaping hole in roller derby training protocols was perplexing to me. Why, in a sport where players are so competitive and so willing to spend time, money and effort to become better players, do they skip one of the most vital components of thequestion-mark-460867_1920 physical preparation for their sport?

Is it a lack of dedication? Doubtful. Given that this sport actually has a term for those
significant others (un)fortunate enough to have lost their partner to the roller derby community (derby widow) it seems unlikely that anyone could question most players’ dedication to their league and team.

Is it a lack of access due to time or expense? Also unlikely. The constraints of time and finances do not affect the roller derby community to any greater degree than they do any other amateur athletes; yet at the amateur level most rugby, soccer, American football and even volleyball players include strength and conditioning programs in their training.

And then it dawned on me… roller derby is a unique animal in the world of athletics in one very significant way. The large majority of current players not only didn’t begin playing the sport until they were adults, but many of them have never had exposure to training for any other sports either. In essence, most roller derby athletes have no idea that they are even missing this crucial piece of training for the sport they love, and those that do realize that “off skates” is important misunderstand what the goals of training protocols actually are and how they should be designed and implemented to reach them.

We need to fix this. We are not taking our sport as seriously as we should. We are not playing to our potential. We are getting injured and/or shortening our playing careers because of it. We can do better, and we have to.

What Strength And Conditioning Isn’t

Misunderstandings abound in the derby community at large regarding what many teams refer to as “off skates” training. This is not surprising given the confusion surrounding the role of exercise for both athletic and non-athlete populations by society as a whole. There are, however, some really pervasive myths that I hear time and time again in roller derby circles that should be addressed.

Training For Aesthetics Is Not Athletics


Fitness all sizes
Photo credit: Howard Schatz, Bodies, 2002
Photo credit: Howard Schatz, Bodies, 2002

The ladies in the pictures above all have one thing in common. They are all professional athletes at the peak of their physical condition.(2) As is readily apparent, elite athletes come in all shapes and sizes. This is because the movement patterns of different sports require different physical attributes to allow someone to perform at an elite level. For example, the large frame that gives a shot putter the extra mass needed to launch their implement for a considerable distance is definitely going to be a hindrance on the uneven bars in a gymnastics competition.


Believe it or not, roller derby also has its own set of physical (having to do with components of the body itself) and physiological (having to do with the function of the components) ideals, some of which are position specific. This doesn’t mean that you can’t excel if you don’t fit the mold, but it may make it harder to do so. One of the goals of training for sport should therefore be to move you as close to that ideal as you can get.

Unfortunately, much of the “off skates” training that is used in roller derby comes from the fitness world where the primary goal is usually aesthetic, i.e. getting more muscle definition, reducing bodyfat, etc. Although body composition changes may be desirable for a roller derby player (there will be a whole separate blog post coming up about body composition and its role in derby in the near future), it isn’t the primary goal of training and so shouldn’t be the primary outcome.

Just because someone looks like this:

fitness 2

doesn’t mean that she can do this.(3)


In other words, having visible abs, a v-tapered waist or a fantastic bikini-girl booty will not help you get past the pivot on turn 1, nor will it help you help you execute a quick lateral shuffle to block the jammer trying to sneak past on the outside line. Stop wasting valuable training time with exercise (and nutrition) programs designed to produce the former rather than the latter.

“Fitness” Is Not Sports Performance Training

Mirriam-Webster’s dictionary defines “fit” as “physically healthy and strong.” Obviously, both of these characteristics are requirements for our sport (although being “strong” is subjective). Because a large percentage of roller derby players come from a non-athletic background, have limited training experience or have been away from athletics for a period of time before beginning to play derby, many will initially benefit from generalized fitness programs like bootcamps to help them develop a solid foundation of both strength and cardiovascular fitness. However, after a certain baseline is established, generalized fitness training becomes ineffective for sports performance purposes.

The biggest problem with general fitness training is just that… it’s general. Although the perceived cardiovascular benefit that you got bootcamp-685421_1920from the 90 kettlebell swings you did at Orange Theory Fitness over the past few weeks may help you feel like you’ll get through a full two minute jam with less huffing and puffing than you would have without them (it won’t), there is very little in the world of general fitness training that is directly transferrable to sports performance. Will making your quads stronger with lunges help you to have a better push on your stride? You bet. But so will being able to utilize the stretch-shortening cycle of the muscles in your legs, as will being able to properly dorsiflect your ankle (as well as a bunch of other specific physiological adaptations as well.) In other words, it takes ALL of these things put together to perform better, and working on only one piece of the puzzle is not only ineffective, it can create muscle imbalances or compensation errors that lead to DECREASED performance and potential injury when it’s done haphazardly or incorrectly.

CrossFit Is Not Strength And Conditioning, And Neither Is Powerlifting

Although CrossFit is exponentially more taxing than a generic fitness bootcamp workout, it suffers from some of the same problems when it comes to athletes looking to it to improve sports performance.  According to its founder Greg Glassman, CrossFit was designed to be a “jack of all trades” type of workout, the goal of which is not to achieve specialized abilities and fitness that apply to one particular set of movements, but is rather general physical preparedness.

In addition to this lack of specificity, the CrossFit model in most boxes (not all) uses a varied training protocol with a complete lack of periodization(4). In other words, because it is designed to be physically demanding across multiple domains simultaneously, it does not follow a systematic plan to get you from point A to point B within a specified period of time, something that is crucial to an athlete.

For those boxes that do offer periodization, the end goal is usually to improve the performance of the lifts/exercises/movements that are actually being trained on an every day basis for competition. In other words, CrossFitters are not training, they are practicing for their sport… CrossFitweights-646502 itself.(5)

Powerlifting and Olympic weightlifting exist in this same training territory. Unlike CrossFit, the training protocols for each are strictly periodized and the training is very specific, but it is the lifts themselves are the goals. While it would be awesome to find a jammer who can deadlift 430lbs or who can clean 190kg, the amount of time she would have to spend training for those particular movements would automatically prevent her from training for derby itself. In short, many of the exercises used in all of these protocols (fitness, CrossFit, powerlifting and Olympic weightlifting) are useful for inclusion in a sports performance program, but if you’re solely using any of these protocols themselves and expecting them to translate into being a better roller derby player, you’re wasting your time.

Now We Know What Strength And Conditioning Isn’t, So What IS It? 

Good question. Here’s a nice, tidy definition:

Strength and conditioning is the development of physical and physiological attributes needed by athletes to perform at elite levels within their specific sport. 

Simple, right? For the most part, the concept itself IS very simple.

The primary goals of a strength and conditioning program are to improve your performance in your sport by making you stronger, faster and more powerful in movements required by that sport; and to reduce athletic injuries by making you stronger, faster and more powerful in the physical parts of your anatomy which are most prone to damage in that sport.

What’s not so simple is the execution. Even among the strength and conditioning community itself there are innumerable opinions on the best approaches to achieve these goals for various sports. Despite these differences of opinions, there are also some ucrossfit-534615_1280 (1)niversally accepted truths among S&C coaches. First, strength training should be the primary focus when programming for strength/power sports (roller derby, like most other contact and collision sports, falls into this category.) Second, although multiple types of periodization training models exist and some are more effective than others, strength training for sports must be periodized to be effective once athletes have surpassed a novice stage. Third, training program design must take into consideration an athlete’s seasonal, practice and game schedule and must be adjusted accordingly. Fourth, the physical and physiological improvements sought at the beginning of a training program should be general in nature and training should progress to more specific adaptations as the time for competition draws closer.(6)

Although these pinnalces of strength and conditioning are well known throughout the sporting world, they are rarely implemented or even talked about in roller derby. If we want to be taken more seriously as athletes, this needs to change.

Why Does Any Of This Matter At All?

“We don’t need to train outside of practice, because we get all the physical work we need by practicing and playing roller derby.”

By now, in 2016, I realize that most of the roller derby world recognizes that the statement above is pretty silly. That sort of thinking has largely gone the way of penalty cages (I have to admit, the Skank Tank was seriously cool even if it was ridiculously unweildy to get to bouts) and kneeling starts (thank the derby gods that that one is gone). However, I occasionally still run into this type of thinking.


If you don’t think that making your body physically stronger or more powerful will help you get better as a player, then you had better be playing for a team that has a recent championship title and you personally had better be some sort of genetically gifted freak. No? I thought not.

The truth is, ALL athletes benefit from a body that performs at its peak, and that peak simply cannot be physically attained through four, six or even eight hours a week on the dreamstime_l_10601683track (more than a quarter of which time is usually spent standing around waiting to do skills drills). Even if your team scrimmages weekly, you simply aren’t putting enough physical stress on your system to cause the physical and physiological adaptations that would help you play your best. It doesn’t matter if you are in your second season or your tenth. You could be playing better.

For younger players in the early stages of their career training properly outside of derby practice has significant impact on their skating ability. If you’ve ever helped coach fresh meat, you know that there are some skaters who just can’t seem to “get” a drill no matter how many times you explain it. Sometimes this is a coach-cuing error. Sometimes, it’s a skater listening problem. More often than not, however, it’s a physical issue having to do with strength or proprioception deficiencies of the individual. It doesn’t matter if you tell someone to do the same drill 100 times, if her body isn’t physically capable of executing the movement properly you’re not only wasting time, but you may be engraining faulty movement patterns that can make performance worse or lead to injury down the road. For newer skaters the mantra should always be ‘train to be athletes first, then train to be roller derby athletes.’

Even if you’re a vet, training outside of pratice has significant benefits. In addition to improved performance, proper strength and conditioning protocols are proven to reduce the incidence of injury and reduce recovery times when injuries do happen. Refusing to thoroughly physically prepare for a contact sport like derby just doesn’t make sense. You wear a helmet, a mouthguard, and pads, right?  Why would you want to treat your other vulnerable parts with any less care?(7)

Ultimately all of this matters because this sport is evolving. As a new generation of players step up from the junior leagues and as new leagues form around the world (some with the support of their national sport federations), current players and leagues need to stay competitive. By failing to do so the entire sport risks being forever labeled as sports-entertainment like the WWE. To ultimately play on the world stage, for a shot at the Olympics or at X-Games or at any other significant international multi-sport competition that will prove once and for all that roller derby is “real,” roller derby players themselves have to prove that they are athletes.  To do that, we need to take EVERY aspect of our sport seriously.

(1) Unfortunately, without exception, I’ve been the only “roller derby person” at every single major strength and conditioning conference that I have attended in the past two years. Considering how much the sport has grown, the odds should be against me being the sole representative for our sport in front of the rest of the athletic performance world. So why have I been all alone among a sea of folks who work with NFL, NHL, Olympic track and field, golf, rugby, soccer, tennis and gymnastics?

(2) Howard Schatz’ book, Bodies, is beautiful. If you want to take a look you can find it here.

(3) I’m just using this picture as an example. I don’t know the model and she may, in fact, be a wonderfully gifted athlete.

(4) Periodization means that the training program is broken down into cycles where the trainee works towards a specific goal, like strength, over a specified period of time before moving to another specified goal.

(5) I am not bashing CrossFit, so please don’t start sending me hate mail about this. When properly coached, CrossFit can be an awesome way to get in really, really good shape. It is also extremely impressive as its own separate sport. It is just not, and never will be, appropriate for improving sports performance across the majority of other sports.

(6) This last one can be very tough in roller derby because many leagues lack a coherent seasonal structure, instead opting to play nearly year round. Because of the extremely limited “off season” athletes rarely have the time to commit to an intense physical training protocol (where for most sports the biggest gains are made) before having to be ready to begin competition season again. This can be dealt with by using a multi-peaking program design similar to that used in golf, cycling and other year round sports.

(7) The connection between strength and conditioning and injury rates will be discussed in a separate upcoming post.

* I’d like to send a special thanks to Carniverous Licks from Gold Coast Derby Grrls who asked me to write this piece for her league about two years ago. I wasn’t sure at the time whether I was going to continue to work with derby and so it never happened. For that I apologize. I hope that the team and league still get some benefit from this info all this time later.

* If you want more specific information about strength and conditioning programs for derby, please shoot me an email at shelley@fitlabperformance.com or visit my site at http://www.fitlabperformance.com .